Analysis on the problem of "avoiding the misunderstanding of modern industrial system construction" ⑤: Never build a car behind closed doors.

  For China, which is committed to building a powerful socialist modernization country, accelerating the construction of a modern industrial system is no longer a "multiple choice" but a "compulsory course". If we want to pass this "required course" with high marks, we must proceed from the basic national conditions of China, adhere to open cooperation and guard against "behind closed doors".

  Openness is an important feature of modern industrial system.

  To speed up the construction of a modern industrial system supported by the real economy, why should we emphasize "adhering to open cooperation and not building cars behind closed doors"?

  — — This is a realistic choice to look forward to the future road on the basis of historical experience.

  Reform and opening up is a strong driving force for China’s development and progress for more than 40 years, and it is also a source of vitality for its future development and progress. Building a modern industrial system is also inseparable from this important magic weapon.

  "Open cooperation is an important driving force for sustainable economic development. To build a modern industrial system supported by the real economy, it is necessary to realize the interactive integration of industrial chain, supply chain and innovation chain in open cooperation. " Liu Qunyan, director of the Intellectual Property Operation Service Center of Shanghai Jiaotong University, said.

  "The modern industrial system of a powerful country must be international and global. Constantly shaping the new competitive advantages of China’s manufacturing industry in the complex and ever-changing global economic system is the cornerstone for achieving the goal of building a strong country. " Ma Tao, dean of the Business School of Harbin Institute of Technology, said that from "poor and white" to "running with", "running together" and even "leading", China’s manufacturing industry has always been the key content. China’s super-large-scale labor force has entered the global factor market and formed a "world factory". The global resource allocation capacity of China’s manufacturing enterprises has been greatly developed, which also provides an efficient market matrix for the growth of global advantageous enterprises such as new energy vehicles and ICT products.

  — — This is a realistic choice to seize future opportunities on the basis of historical achievements.

  China has the most complete industrial system and the largest potential domestic demand market in the world. These two advantages are the results of years of active participation in international division of labor and global competition, which provide strong support for building a new development pattern and become a solid foundation for further promoting the open development of modern industrial system.

  Modernization and internationalization are closely related, and openness and competitiveness complement each other. Whether we can build an open and cooperative modern industrial system is related to whether we can win the strategic initiative in international competition and future development. Only by connecting with the international industrial system can we participate in the global industrial division and cooperation more deeply, allocate resources on a global scale, and maintain the innovative vitality of continuous progress in fully participating in international competition.

  — — This is a realistic choice for planning future development on the basis of historical laws.

  To develop a country and revitalize a nation, we must follow the logic of historical progress and conform to the development trend of the times. Today, China is approaching the center of the world stage as never before and interacting closely with the world; Looking around the world, the world is experiencing a new round of great development, great changes and great adjustments. We should follow the trend and take advantage of the situation to promote the high-quality economic development of China under more open conditions.

  "The modern industrial system faces the world and the international market. Openness is its proper meaning. It is necessary to obtain high-end demand information and release the energy of system development in the deep interaction with the global factor market, product and service market. Facing the future, the modern industrial system needs extensive exchanges on a global scale, deepening cooperation among innovation chain, industrial chain and supply chain, creating incremental markets and benefiting the community of human destiny. " Professor school of economics and management of Tongji University and Chen Qiang, executive director of Shanghai Industrial Innovation Ecosystem Research Center, said.

  The construction of modern industrial system is related to the overall national security and high-quality development. Only by creating an open and innovative ecology with international competitiveness can we enhance the adsorption of high-grade innovation factors and production factors, enhance our control over innovation chain and key links in the industrial chain, and realize the leap from "Made in China" to "Created in China".

  "Building a car behind closed doors" can’t build a modern industrial system

  No country or nation in the world can achieve its own development and revitalization by following the footsteps of others, and no country can achieve modernization in the process of closing its doors and building cars behind closed doors. In the construction of China’s modern industrial system, why do some places appear behind closed doors?

  Chen Qiang believes that this has something to do with the objective environment and subjective mentality. First, it is caused by objective environment. At present, a few countries are "building a wall and setting up a base" and "decoupling and breaking the chain" in the cooperation of science and technology and industry, trying to make China’s high-tech industry fall into a situation of "sitting alone in a corner". Second, it is related to subjective mentality. Or it is manifested as "only burying one’s head in pulling a cart, regardless of looking up at the road", lacking the initiative to know and understand the development frontier of science and technology industry and the changes in international market demand; Or blind self-confidence, thinking that the bottleneck problem that restricts the development of modern industrial system can achieve a rapid breakthrough in a relatively short time; Or it is manifested as one-sided pursuit of safety and emphasis on "localization", which leads to self-isolation and isolation in power organization, resource allocation and factor flow.

  "To tackle key core technologies, we should not only devote ourselves to deep cultivation and work hard for a long time, but also look at the world and gather global talents to work together to achieve a larger and higher level breakthrough." Chen Qiang said that "localization" is not the purpose of building a modern industrial system. What is important is to ensure the resilience and safety of the industrial chain and supply chain under the complicated international situation. Although globalization is constantly encountering new challenges, the construction of modern industrial system should adhere to the "international song" and consolidate the material and technological foundation of the Chinese modernization road.

  Some people understand independent innovation as going it alone and opposing it with open cooperation, which is obviously wrong. Independent innovation is not to build a car behind closed doors and fight alone, but to gather the spirit of the four seas and borrow the power of all parties. Many high-tech industries in China have developed and grown in the sound of "Internationale". Many industries developed earlier abroad, and there are many places worth learning from in technology, equipment and regulations.

  Take the biopharmaceutical industry as an example. China’s biopharmaceutical industry started 20 to 30 years later than the developed countries in Europe and America. Because the development and iteration of products take time, some R&D and production equipment and reagents still need to be imported. However, China biopharmaceutical enterprises insist on open cooperation, constantly explore the international market, and set sail in various forms such as investment and merger, patent authorization and product transfer, so as to gradually shorten the gap with overseas mature markets.

  According to the data of the General Administration of Customs, the total import and export volume of biological products in China increased from 58.77 billion yuan to 293.35 billion yuan from 2017 to 2021. Among them, the first four years showed a steady growth trend, and the export value was significantly lower than the import value. In 2020, it was only 35.73 billion yuan. In 2021, the export value of biological products increased significantly to 187.2 billion yuan, an increase of more than 400%, and achieved the first trade surplus in the past five years.

  "Building a car behind closed doors means being backward and eliminated. We should learn from foreign advanced experience. While absorbing foreign advanced technology, we must strengthen the innovation system and the capacity building of independent innovation to keep up with or even surpass the world advanced level." Dr. Chen Bingliang, the chief scientist of Cinda Biopharmaceutical Group, said that since its establishment in 2011, the company has been persisting in opening up and innovation, taking the road of globalization, and has reached a number of international cooperation with internationally renowned enterprises. Its R&D and production standards have passed the examination of international quality standards, and it has also formed independent intellectual property rights, which has become a typical case for foreigners to buy intellectual property rights in China in the field of people’s livelihood.

  For some time, economic globalization has encountered "headwind and countercurrent". Some countries try to "decouple and break the chain" and build a "small courtyard and high wall", hoping to exclude China from the global value chain division system. The most effective strategy to break the "high wall of small courtyard" is not to return to closure, but to promote a higher level of scientific and technological self-reliance and expand a higher level of opening up. It is necessary to show the world China’s confidence and determination to participate in the global economy and promote more inclusive, inclusive and resilient global development.

  The door to China’s opening will only grow wider and wider.

  This year marks the 45th anniversary of China’s reform and opening up, which has developed China and influenced the world. China’s economy is a sea, and all the oceans in the world are connected. China will only open wider and wider, and we will always stand on the right side of history and will never be hindered by headwinds and turning waves.

  — — Adhere to open cooperation and build an institutional mechanism that is more in line with the law of innovation.

  "The modern industrial system is a system of technological innovation, and we must respect the laws of technological innovation." Mi Lei, the founding partner of Zhongke Chuangxing Technology Investment Co., Ltd., said that he has been doing the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, but it is difficult for real frontier projects of science and technology to get financing at an early stage. On the one hand, many private enterprises that started from traditional industries are unfamiliar with and do not understand high technology, and dare not invest their money in the future; On the other hand, many powerful state-owned enterprises and central enterprises make relatively conservative investment decisions.

  Take controlled nuclear fusion technology as an example, it is a revolutionary new energy technology that can change the world, and China’s scientific research work in this field is also in the international leading phalanx. In recent years, global commercial capital is pouring into controlled nuclear fusion. According to incomplete statistics, by 2020, there are 23 private companies in controlled nuclear fusion, while there are few private companies in controlled nuclear fusion, China.

  "We have a big gap with the United States in the field of future-oriented venture capital. Innovation means uncertainty, trial and error, and letting a hundred flowers blossom. It needs tolerance to encourage innovation. " Mi Lei believes that we should further improve the mechanism of encouraging innovation and increase investment in hard science and technology fields such as quantum, photonic chips and controlled nuclear fusion, which require long-term investment. Building a modern industrial system means that from talent selection to capital investment, from evaluation mechanism to reward and punishment mechanism, it must be built around the law of innovation.

  — — Encourage participation in competition and attract higher quality global resources.

  In 2022, the actual use of foreign capital in China was 1,232.68 billion yuan, up 6.3% year-on-year according to comparable caliber, equivalent to 189.13 billion US dollars, up 8% year-on-year. This data shows that the vast majority of foreign-funded enterprises are still optimistic about the development prospects in China, and China is still a global investment highland.

  Under the current global situation, we should make more efforts in "bringing in" at a high level and "going out" at a high quality. Ma Tao said that in 2021, foreign applicants obtained more than 110,000 invention patents in China. By the end of 2022, among the more than 1,300 technical committees in China, the participation rate of foreign-funded enterprises exceeded 60%. At the same time, however, foreign R&D institutions in China focus on local market development, emphasizing domestic demand in medical and pharmaceutical industries, advanced manufacturing and other industries, with few core R&D tasks for global external demand and few forward-looking basic research.

  To achieve high-level "introduction", we should encourage multinational companies to set up R&D centers in China, or cooperate with local institutions to form international R&D alliances and joint R&D institutions, encourage foreign-funded enterprises to participate in the pre-research and drafting of Chinese standards, and support the innovative development of foreign-funded R&D institutions in China; It is necessary to give play to the traction role of national key and major foreign-funded projects, and guide global resources to actively participate in the construction of national new industrialized industrial demonstration bases and advanced manufacturing clusters; It is necessary to support Chinese enterprises to lay out overseas open innovation systems, encourage all kinds of innovative subjects in China to establish overseas R&D institutions, overseas scientific and technological innovation centers and overseas entrepreneurial bases, support Chinese enterprises to actively carry out shared innovation cooperation with domestic and foreign partners and users, and build an innovation consortium by creating new technologies, new industries, new formats and new models; Encourage and support Chinese enterprises to promote the transnational transfer and transformation of appropriate technologies and achievements and promote two-way technical cooperation.

  — — Strengthen synergy and break down local protection and regional barriers.

  Adhere to open cooperation, not only externally, but also internally. Compared with opening to the outside world, opening to the outside world faces many problems and challenges. To build a modern industrial system in which the real economy, scientific and technological innovation, modern finance and human resources cooperate with each other, it is necessary to speed up the establishment of national unified market system rules, break local protection and market segmentation, open up key blocking points that restrict the economic cycle, and promote the smooth flow of commodity factor resources in a wider range.

  Liu Qunyan suggested deepening the reform of the system and mechanism of factor resource allocation. Strengthen the market-oriented allocation reform of land, labor, talents, technology, capital, data and other essential resources to reduce excessive dependence on land and labor resources; Cultivate and introduce innovative talents and high technology, and use the financing capacity of the capital market to promote the development and progress of the real economy.

  Globalization is the general trend of world economic development, and openness is an important feature of modern industrial system. In the process of building a modern industrial system, China will firmly pursue an open strategy of mutual benefit and win-win, deeply integrate into the global industrial chain supply chain, participate in international circulation at a high level, and constantly provide new opportunities for the world with the new development of China.

  (Member of Economic Daily Research Group: Economic Daily reporter Qi Dong Gu Yang Niu Jin She Huimin Huang Xin Ouyang You wrote: She Huimin)