Year after year, is the Lantern Festival as you remember it?

  Reference message networkReported on February 19 Today is the rain in the solar terms in China, and it is also the last important festival in the Spring Festival customs — — Lantern Festival.

Illustration 1

  In June 2008, the Lantern Festival was selected as a national intangible cultural heritage. This traditional festival celebrated by China people has attracted worldwide attention.

  So, what is the China Lantern Festival in the eyes of foreign media? With this question, Xiao Bian put down the dumplings in his hand and opened the old newspaper of Reference News. While looking for foreign media reports on the Lantern Festival, he felt all kinds of changes and invariants in the development of the times … …

  In 2006, the online edition of The Times published an article entitled "Every household adheres to the ancient custom of eating Yuanxiao", which recorded the Lantern Festival time of a family in Beijing:

  "Wang wrapped in thick cotton-padded clothes and his mother stood in line for half an hour in the cold just to buy a bag of old brand Yuanxiao. The mother said: ‘ Such hard work is worth it. You have to eat Yuanxiao today, because it is a symbol of family reunion. ’”

  The word "stick to it" in the title of this article impressed Xiaobian. Why should we "stick to it" when eating Yuanxiao?

  Combined with the social background at that time, this problem is not difficult to understand. At that time, foreign festivals, commonly known as "foreign festivals", began to occupy a place in the lives of ordinary people in China, and even triggered a query that "traditional festivals are no match for foreign festivals".

  The most typical ones are Valentine’s Day and Lantern Festival. A "foreign festival", a traditional festival, is very close to each other every year: for example, the Lantern Festival is the second day of Valentine’s Day in 2003, and there is only one day between Lantern Festival and Valentine’s Day in 2006. The closeness of the two festivals made the topic of sticking to traditional festivals more prominent.

  For example, in an AFP article entitled "China people celebrate Valentine’s Day and Lantern Festival successively" in 2003, it was mentioned that China people celebrated Valentine’s Day with double joy this year, because people could celebrate the traditional Lantern Festival after Valentine’s Day at the same time.

  The media said that "since opening to the outside world, China has been more and more keen on Valentine’s Day". Although February 15th (Saturday) was the Lantern Festival that year, many people hung lanterns on the evening of 14th (Friday) to celebrate Valentine’s Day and Lantern Festival at the same time.

  After a lapse of three years, the Financial Times in 2006 also celebrated the "Foreign Festival" with "China in vogue"? It is reported that although China today is more confident and tolerant, not all China people are happy or optimistic about the fashion change of "foreign festivals" for young people. The newspaper mentioned a China person who rightly said: "Even if Valentine’s Day and Lantern Festival in the West are close this year, it can’t make ‘ Lover’s mood ’ Squeeze ‘ Celebrate the whole world and have fun with the people ’ The cultural connotation. "

  Today, 15 years later, when we look at the reports at that time, we may not feel so strongly about this topic. In Xiaobian’s view, even though China people have become accustomed to some "foreign festivals", their enthusiasm for traditional festivals such as the Lantern Festival has not diminished at all.

  Moreover, it has been proved that the traditional Lantern Festival custom has not faded with the progress of the times.

  In 2013, united press international reported that in Pingyao, Shanxi Province, every household hung red lanterns and set off fireworks to celebrate the Lantern Festival.

  Sarah brown, an Australian tourist, said, "We came to Pingyao from Beijing and felt the different atmosphere of the Lantern Festival. The atmosphere in Pingyao is more cheerful. It’s easy to get separated from friends in such a bustling street … … We feel the charm of the China Lunar New Year. "

  At that time, AFP reporters came to Nuanquan Town, Hebei Province, and recorded the local people’s way of ending the Lunar New Year with a unique "Da Shu Hua Show" performance.

  According to the report, this way of celebrating Lantern Festival, invented more than 300 years ago, is one of many ancient folk activities in China that have been restored in recent decades.

Caption 4

On the evening of February 5, 2019, folk artists performed "Da Shu Hua Show" at the Asia-Pacific Temple Fair in zunhua city, Hebei Province. (Xinhua News Agency)

  AFP reporter recorded the process of the performance: the master who performed "Da Shu Hua Show" only "equipped" the straw hat and protective glasses. They scooped molten iron out of the bucket and splashed it on a brick wall. The iron flowers splashed on the brick wall, which was very spectacular.

  According to the report, this spectacular scene caused deafening cheers from the audience in Wenquan Town. Wenquan Town is only a few hours’ drive from Beijing. In order to promote the development of tourism, Wenquan Town resumed this folk activity with a history of hundreds of years.

  Of course, with the restoration of traditional folk customs, the way to celebrate the Lantern Festival is also changing in another way.

  In a report in 2017, the online reporter of Hong Kong Asia Times mentioned that when the Lantern Festival was held in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province in 2016, there was a beautiful electronic light show at the local Chinese Dinosaur Park, but it was not a traditional lantern, and of course there were no riddles.

  Spain’s Effie also noticed a new way to celebrate the Lantern Festival. The agency reported in 2016 that in order to celebrate the Lantern Festival, many people visited the Longqingxia Ice Lantern Art Festival in Yanqing District, Beijing. As one of the competition areas of Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics, many ice sculptures at the festival are sports-oriented.

Illustration 5

  Mr. Jiang, a tourist, came here with his family for the holiday. He said that although these ice sculptures are a little far from the traditional Lantern Festival celebration elements, he feels: "We should keep pace with the times, and these are very special." Mr. Jiang said: "Of course, this is not a traditional way to celebrate, but we like it very much, and the children are also very interested in ice sculptures", especially the ice sculptures with the theme of the 2020 Olympic Games.

  "With the development of economy and society, China people’s Chinese New Year activities are gradually changing to a more modern form." Effie commented.

  Of course, the Effie reporter also noticed that in Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province, not far from Beijing, the celebration activities are much more traditional. Besides singing and dancing in traditional costumes, there are also traditional folk activities such as walking on stilts.

  In short, Xiao Bian believes that both adhering to the traditional customs and exploring the modern ways of celebrating the Lantern Festival express China people’s persistence and love for the traditional festivals.

Figure 6

As the Lantern Festival approaches in 2019, many activities such as Dragon Lantern Festival and Dragon Lantern Show are held in Guizhou Province to celebrate the Lantern Festival and the Spring Festival. (Xinhua News Agency)

The Japanese team defeated the American team and won the world baseball classic championship.

(Observer News) According to Kyodo News, the world baseball classic (WBC) final was held in Miami, Florida, USA on the 21st local time. Japan defeated the last champion, the United States, 3-2 to win the championship for the third time. The last time Japan won the championship was the second WBC in 2009.

Japan won the championship. Figure from Kyodo News

There are frequent incidents of fraudulent insurance. Where is the boundary of "over-diagnosis and treatment" in medical institutions?

A few days ago, a patient reported that the Second People’s Hospital of Wuhu City, Anhui Province (hereinafter referred to as "Wuhu Second Hospital") overcharged medical expenses, which aroused strong concern in the industry about "excessive diagnosis and treatment".

On December 2nd, Anhui Medical Insurance Bureau informed the Second Hospital of Wuhu about the illegal use of medical insurance funds, and on the 4th, official website of Hunan Medical Insurance Bureau issued the "Administrative Punishment of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University", which fined the hospital about 980,000 yuan for illegal use of medical insurance funds.

CBN found that in recent years, the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of the Use of Medical Insurance Funds (hereinafter referred to as the Administrative Regulations) and the Interim Measures for the Supervision and Administration of the Use of Medical Insurance Funds (hereinafter referred to as the Interim Measures) and other laws and regulations have been promulgated one after another, providing policy and legal basis for the supervision of medical insurance funds; As a complement to the Interim Measures, the Measures for Reporting Incentives for Illegal Use of Medical Insurance Funds (hereinafter referred to as the "Incentive Measures") was also released in November 2022. This document is to mobilize social forces to participate in fund supervision and safeguard the safety of medical insurance funds.

The National Medical Insurance Bureau has repeatedly stressed that the medical insurance fund will never become "Tang monk meat". According to official data, since 2019, the National Medical Insurance Bureau has sent a total of 184 flight inspection teams to inspect 384 designated medical institutions, and found that 4.35 billion yuan of related funds were used illegally. Since the implementation of the "Incentive Measures" in January this year, medical insurance departments at all levels across the country have verified and recovered the amount of medical insurance violations of 158 million yuan according to the clues reported by the masses.

An expert on medical insurance policy told CBN that with the increasing efforts to crack down on fraudulent medical insurance in China, blatant fraudulent medical insurance behaviors such as "fake patients", "fake services", "fake medical products" and "fake medical insurance expenses" have been effectively curbed, but some fraudulent medical insurance behaviors have also shifted from the front to the back, and gradually changed to behaviors such as excessive medical treatment and excessive fees. How to determine the boundary of excessive medical treatment and how to adopt scientific and accurate comprehensive management methods are the key points in the next stage.

The boundary of "excessive diagnosis and treatment"

According to the notification of Anhui Medical Insurance Bureau, Wuhu Medical Insurance Bureau has fully recovered the medical insurance fund illegally used by Wuhu Second Hospital according to the medical insurance service agreement signed by the hospital, and deducted the liquidated damages at 30%, interviewed the relevant person in charge of the hospital, and handed it over to the public security and health care departments for further verification. At the same time, the bureau has started the administrative punishment procedure in accordance with the Management Regulations.

"Medical insurance service agreements are handled in different ways, but most medical institutions deduct liquidated damages at a rate of 30%." A person in charge of the medical reform department of a health and wellness commission in the southern region told the reporter that in addition to the treatment method according to the medical insurance service agreement, in the administrative punishment procedure, the above-mentioned "Management Regulations" stipulates that illegal acts that cause losses to the medical insurance fund shall be ordered to return, and a fine of more than 1 time and less than 2 times shall be imposed.

Zhao Dahai, a professor at the School of International and Public Affairs of Shanghai Jiaotong University, told the First Financial Reporter that whether it is for medical institutions or medical staff, the end of over-diagnosis and treatment must bring economic returns to themselves and institutions (institutions also involve scale expansion), but in the final analysis, the supervision of medical insurance funds needs a set of strict, scientific and legally effective standards to judge and identify.

"For public hospitals, we can constantly correct their use of medical insurance funds by strengthening supervision, but private hospitals and pharmacies have certain commercial attributes, so we still need to rely on effective supervision methods when avoiding the risk of fraudulent insurance." Zhao Dahai said that in the next stage, health care and medical insurance departments can jointly promote the standardization and implementation of clinical diagnosis and treatment paths.

To this end, the person in charge of the medical insurance service department of a top-three hospital in Beijing said that at any time, medical institutions should never make profits by prescribing drugs and consumables without collecting the information of the insured. This is malicious fraud and insurance fraud, and it is also the bottom line problem. However, at this stage, it is not uncommon for medical institutions to occupy too much medical insurance funds by improving the accessibility of drugs and consumables.

"But whether this belongs to’ excessive diagnosis and treatment’ needs to be viewed objectively." The person in charge said that on the one hand, some innovative drugs are expensive but have great benefits to diseases, and doctors prescribe them for patients out of kindness. However, due to the annual update of the medical insurance catalogue, whether the innovative drugs are still within the scope of the medical insurance catalogue, whether the medical insurance limited payment ratio has been adjusted, and whether the patient’s area is applicable need further careful confirmation. On the other hand, the scope of medical insurance fund’s limited payment needs to refer to a number of matters, including the indications in the drug instructions and the reimbursement ratio of the insured’s location. "It is almost impossible for doctors to record all the contents and ensure that there are no mistakes. Therefore, it is imperative to introduce an information-assisted platform and do a good job in training."

Is there a solution to the problem that medical institutions illegally use medical insurance funds caused by "excessive diagnosis and treatment"?

Cai Haiqing, former director of the Treatment Protection Department of Jiangxi Provincial Medical Insurance Bureau, said that, first of all, it is necessary to solve the problem of how to identify "excessive diagnosis and treatment"; Secondly, with the comprehensive implementation of the reform of DRGs (Payment by Disease Diagnosis Group) and DIG (Payment by Disease Score), the problem of medical insurance payment currently facing the clinic is to solve the problem of "over-diagnosis and treatment" and to prevent possible insufficient diagnosis and treatment. "Insufficient diagnosis and treatment includes low-standard discharge, reducing necessary medical services and inspection items, and reducing the use of drugs and consumables. This situation is to reduce the cost of medical services and improve the yield."

As a matter of fact, the First Financial Reporter learned in the industry that it is difficult to identify, identify and dispose of over-medical treatment. In June this year, "Research on the Identification of Over-medical Treatment Behavior and the Regulation Rules of Medical Insurance" released the first "over-medical treatment index system". The theoretical basis of this system includes sampling data, written materials and written materials of fund supervision discussions of 121 designated medical insurance institutions in Shanghai. It involves 5 first-level indicators, 30 second-level indicators and 67 third-level indicators.

"Although the system is developed in the form of research, it is still some time before it is fully implemented, but at least it has broken the definition of the boundary of overtreatment." Cai Haiqing said.

Regulatory challenges

Since the beginning of this year, official website, the National Medical Insurance Bureau, has published 40 typical cases of fraudulent insurance in four phases. The illegal use of medical insurance funds includes: changing medical treatment items, falsely recording infusion drugs, treatment and inspection fees, forging materials, uploading false medication data, etc. Most of these cases were discovered by local medical insurance departments through active forms such as medical data verification in different places, big data screening and analysis, and on-site supervision and inspection.

On the basis of the previous vigorous rectification work, what are the challenges in the supervision of medical insurance funds and how to establish a long-term supervision mechanism?

To this end, Yu Changyong, an associate professor at the School of Public Administration of Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, told reporters that under the new situation, the new challenges of China’s medical insurance fund supervision can be interpreted from four aspects. First of all, after years of flight inspection and special work to combat fraud and insurance fraud, some "blatant" fraud and insurance fraud in the past have been effectively curbed, and the means of fraud and insurance fraud will be more subtle and the way of fraud will be more complicated.

Secondly, the overall level of medical insurance in various regions has been gradually improved, and the area where patients seek medical treatment has become larger, which will also significantly expand the scope of supervision of medical insurance funds and increase the difficulty of supervision. Thirdly, the reform of outpatient co-ordination makes the medical insurance department not only supervise the hospitalization behavior, but also supervise the outpatient behavior and the drug purchase behavior of pharmacies, and the objects and contents of supervision will show explosive growth.

In addition, the state attaches great importance to the development of Chinese medicine, and Chinese medicine services will be further included in the scope of medical insurance fund payment. However, Chinese medicine services are often treated by people and diseases, and its legal compliance or more difficult to judge, making it more difficult to supervise medical insurance funds.

To this end, Yu Changyong suggested that for some hidden and complicated illegal use of medical insurance funds, the medical insurance administrative department needs to be accurate and qualitative, and administer according to law; On the other hand, it is necessary to increase administrative punishment and even criminal punishment. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of intelligent monitoring and big data screening mechanisms, and establish a credit supervision system as soon as possible.

For the establishment of a long-term mechanism, a medical insurance fund supervisor said that in fact, in the past, the punishment for illegal use of medical insurance funds was mostly in medical institutions, and the punishment for individuals was not enough; At the same time, due to the low cost of violating laws and regulations, in most cases, it is ultimately handled in accordance with the medical insurance service agreement, and administrative punishment, transfer to justice or discipline inspection are rare.

"On the one hand, it is recommended that the medical insurance department unify the standards for law enforcement and incorporate illegal acts of medical institutions into credit management; On the other hand, medical institutions should establish the accountability system, reward and punishment system for the main leaders of the party and government and department heads, and improve the business training in the field of medical insurance payment. In addition, it is necessary to improve the comprehensive supervision mechanism that pays equal attention to incentives and constraints. Medical institutions that self-examine and self-correct and voluntarily return funds can reduce or not be punished. However, for those medical institutions and individuals who repeatedly check recidivism and do not change, they must be dealt with severely. " The source said.

Generative AI stands on the cusp: Silicon Valley bets that future technology giants will shuffle?

Generative AI is getting more and more popular. Is this really a good business?

Recently, AI painting is on fire.

By inputting some words, AI can generate an image that matches the words in a few seconds. These images are wild, and some are even bizarre. For example, people have extra fingers on their hands, and their fingers bend unnaturally. Even, AI can generate some meaningless billboards and alphabets that humans have never seen before.

Although AI painting is outrageous, it has set off a wave of science and technology: the spring of generative AI has come.

David Beisel, a venture capitalist at NextView Ventures, said that in the past three months, the word "generative AI" once became a hot word. Moreover, the generative AI technology has developed rapidly and the market enthusiasm is so high that many people even quit their jobs to start a business in this field.

There is no doubt that AI has been in a prosperous stage in the past five years or so, but most of these past advances have to do with understanding the existing data-for example, the AI model has been able to quickly and efficiently identify whether there are only cats in your mobile phone photos. However, the generative AI model generates something completely new that has never been seen before. In other words, generative AI is not just about analyzing existing data, but creating.

Boris Dayma, founder of Craiyon generative AI, believes that "generative AI is not only creating old images, but also creating many new things, which are completely different from what we have seen before."

Sequoia Capital also said in a blog post on its website: "Generative AI has the potential to create trillions of dollars in economic value." Sequoia Capital predicts that generative AI may change all industries that require human beings to create original works, from games to advertising to the legal profession. It is worth mentioning that Sequoia Capital also pointed out in its blog post that this message was partly written by GPT-3 (GPT-3 is a generative AI capable of generating text).

Working principle of generative AI

In the past, deep learning technology was widely used to train the model on large data sets. When the program understands the relationships in these data, the model can be applied to actual scenes, such as identifying whether there is a dog in a picture or translating text, and so on.

The working principle of the image generator is to reverse this process. For example, instead of translating English into French, it translates English phrases into images. Specifically, it usually has two main parts, one is to process initial phrases, and the other is to convert data into images.

At first, generative AI was based on a method called GAN, that is, the generative adversarial network. In essence, this method is to make two artificial intelligence models compete with each other to better create images that meet the target.

At present, generative AI is usually based on Transformer, such as image generator DALL-E and so on. DALL-E was first created by OpenAI in 2021, and in 2022, OpenAI released DALL-E 2.

Christian Cantrell, a developer who focuses on generative AI, said: "With DALL-E 2, we can really cross uncanny valley." (The Valley of Terror theory is a hypothesis about human perception of robots and non-human objects. It was put forward by Japanese robot expert Masahiro Mori in 1970. )

Another commonly used AI-based image generator is Craiyon (formerly known as DALL-E Mini), where users can enter phrases in the browser and see the illustrations it generates within a few minutes.

According to Dayma, since its launch in July 2021, Craiyon has produced about 10 million unprecedented pictures every day, which adds up to 1 billion. Earlier this year, the use of Crayon soared, and Dayma also took Crayon as its full-time job. In addition, Dayma has created a Twitter account to post the weirdest and most creative pictures generated by Craiyon. For example, ketchup comes out of the tap on the Italian sink.

In addition, Stable Diffusion has also received wide attention. The project was released in August this year and has been open source on GitHub. Developers can run the project on computers, not just in the cloud or through programming interfaces. For example, Stable Diffusion can be integrated into Adobe Photoshop by plug-in, allowing users to generate backgrounds and other parts of images, and use layers and other Photoshop tools to operate in applications.

Cantrell, the developer of the plug-in, said, "I want to meet these creative professionals, so that they can introduce artificial intelligence into their creative work, instead of destroying their work."

It is understood that Cantrell has worked for Adobe for 20 years. After leaving in 2022, Cantrell focused on the direction of generative AI. Cantrell said that Stable Diffusion has been downloaded tens of thousands of times, and artists told him that they used this plug-in in many unexpected places, such as making Godzilla animation or creating pictures of Spider-Man.

Start-up companies get together

Some investors regard generative AI as a potentially transformative change, just like the early development of smart phones or the Internet. This kind of transformation has greatly expanded the potential market of this technology.

"Before that, artificial intelligence was not unprecedented. Before 2007, we were not without mobile devices, "said Beisel, a seed investor." But at this moment, everything came together. The final consumer can experience and see something different from before. "

Cantrell believes that machine learning is similar to a more basic technology: database. "Machine learning is a bit like a database, which opens up a whole new world for network applications. All the applications we have used in our life are built on the database. But no one cares about how the database works. People only know how to use it. "

Michael Dempsey, managing partner of Compound VC, said that in the past, it was "very rare" for laboratory technology to enter the mainstream, but at present, generative AI has attracted wide attention of venture capitalists. Nevertheless, he warned that the current generative AI may be in the "curious stage" near the peak of the hype cycle, and the companies established at this stage may fail because they don’t focus on the specific uses that enterprises or consumers are willing to pay for.

Others in the industry believe that startups that can apply new technologies such as generative AI today may challenge technology giants such as Google, Meta and Microsoft in the future.

At present, many companies applying generative AI technology have already received large amount of financing, and their valuations have also risen. For example, earlier this year, Hugging Face was valued at $2 billion after receiving investments including Lux Capital and Sequoia Capital; OpenAI has also received more than $1 billion from Microsoft and Khosla Ventures.

In addition, according to Forbes, Stability AI, the developer of Stable Diffusion, is negotiating with investment institutions to raise up to $1 billion in venture capital.

Cloud vendors and chip vendors will benefit.

Besides start-ups, cloud service providers such as Amazon, Microsoft and Google can also benefit from it, because generative AI may require a huge amount of computation.

Meta and Google have also taken action and started recruiting talents. In September of this year, Meta released an artificial intelligence application called "Make-A-Video", which can generate videos, which makes the generative AI technology a step further.

"This is a great progress," Zuckerberg, CEO of Meta, posted on his Facebook page. "It is much more difficult to generate videos than photos, because besides correctly generating each pixel, the system must also predict how they will change over time."

Recently, Google matched with Meta and released a program code called Phenaki, which can also convert text into video and generate several minutes of footage.

This craze may also boost chip manufacturers such as Nvidia, AMD and Intel, because the advanced graphics processors produced by these companies are ideal for training and deploying artificial intelligence models.

At a recent meeting, Huang Renxun, CEO of Nvidia, emphasized that generative AI is the key use of the company’s latest chip, and he said that this kind of program may "revolutionize communication" soon.

At present, there are not many uses of generative AI that can generate commercial benefits. Many exciting breakthroughs today come from free or low-cost experiments. For example, some writers have tried to use image generator to generate images for articles. An example of Nvidia is to use a model to generate new 3D images, including people, animals, vehicles or furniture, which can be filled into the virtual game world.

Ethical issues can not be ignored.

While generating AI excites the industry, the ethical issues it brings are also worthy of attention.

The first is employment. Compared with professional illustrators, generative AI is obviously cheaper. Therefore, generative AI is likely to rob artists, video producers and other people engaged in creative work of their "rice bowls".

In addition, there are complex problems in originality and ownership of the content created by generative AI.

Generated AI is trained on a large number of images. Therefore, it is still controversial whether the creator of the original image has copyright requirements for the generated new image.

Some time ago, an artist won an art competition in Colorado, and his winning image was created by a generative AI named MidJourney. After winning, the artist said in an interview that he selected one image from hundreds of images generated by himself and post-processed it in Photoshop.

It is worth mentioning that some images generated by Stable Diffusion are watermarked, which indicates that some of the original data sets are copyrighted. Previously, Getty Images (a picture trading company based in Seattle, USA) announced that it was forbidden for users to upload generated AI pictures to its picture library, because the company was worried that there might be some copyright problems in such pictures. .

With the improvement of image generation software, generative AI may also deceive users, make them believe false information, or display images or videos of events that never happened.

In addition, developers must also deal with the possibility that models trained on a large amount of data may have biases related to gender, race or culture contained in the data, which may cause the models to show such biases in their outputs.

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Source: AI Frontline, author: Kif Leswing. If there is any infringement, please contact to delete it.

Urban governance rule of law: take the "Shanghai Domestic Waste Management Regulations" as an example

Since the reform and opening up, the urban management of Shanghai can be divided into three stages: the initial stage of reform and opening up to 2000, the construction management is cracked by solving the "three difficulties" (difficulty in transportation, housing difficulties, and environmental difficulties). With people -oriented, management as the first, safety as the first, to welcome the "Expo" event and consolidate "comprehensive management" as the main task; since 2017, it has entered refined management to make good use of the "three hearts and one needle" (embroidery -like " Carefulness, patience, excellence, and embroidery needle), build four beams and eight pillars.

After more than forty years of practice and exploration, Shanghai has accumulated rich experience in the process of dealing with various complex problems operating in large cities, and conducted a comprehensive exploration in the refinement of urban management.

In 2021, the Shanghai Housing and Urban -Rural Development Management Committee organized the writing "Exploration and Practice Series of the Construction of" People’s City "in the New Era". Strengthen the refined work of urban management and promote the exploration and practice of people’s urban construction. The book uses the four main "needle methods": rule of law, standardization, intelligence, and socialization (fourizations), combined with cases to detailed how Shanghai performs refined management.

In the chapter of the "rule of the rule of law" the "warning line" of urban management, the writing group cuts in from the legislative, revision, law enforcement and law popularization of the city management field in Shanghai, analyzes the application of the rule of law thinking in the management process, and confirms the construction of the rule of law. Fundamental role in urban management. We have edited some of the contents of this chapter, explained the necessity of rule of law in urban management, and selected one of the most representative cases in order to readers.

For a long time, Shanghai has always regarded the rule of law as an important cornerstone of the construction of governance systems and governance capabilities, based on the management needs of oversized cities, and continuously refining and optimizing the guarantee of legal systems.

In early 2021, driving into the Fenhu Daokou of the G50 Shanghai -Chongqing High Speed ??Speed ??and entering the boundary of Shanghai, Mr. Lin, who was sitting in the co -driver, received a text message- "The Regulations on the Administration of Shanghai Public Health Emergency" will be implemented on November 1, 2020. Everyone is responsible for preventing and controlling and controlling it according to law. Strengthen self -health management, strengthen self -protection awareness, wash hands, divide hands, use public chopstick spoons. Enter the airport, railway station, bus, subway and other public places to wear masks as required to maintain social distance ""

"It is illegal to wear a mask in Shanghai in public places." Mr. Lin turned his head and told his friends and took out the mask from his pocket.

The "Regulations on the Administration of Public Health Emergency" clearly stipulates that during the popularity of respiratory infectious diseases, entering public places should be worn in accordance with the requirements and maintain a social distance. Today, wearing a mask in public places is not only a civilized habit, but also a legal obligation that Shanghai citizens should adhere to.

How to use the rule of law thinking and the rule of law to regulate the public order of the city, so that the law can be dependent on, and the law is based on the law. It is an inevitable requirement and important content of the construction and management of modern cities. From the perspective of the refined goals of urban management, the accuracy and effectiveness of management methods should meet the basic requirements of standardized implementation, and the standardization of the means requires the establishment, sound, and perfect legal and regulatory system to enhance the particle size and refinement of legal resources With high rigorous rules and the spirit of the rule of law, it provides a solid institutional foundation and exquisite behavioral guidance for the efficient operation of urban management. On the one hand, we can rule the people and the people in accordance with the law, and use laws and regulations to restrict the behavior of citizens; on the other hand, in accordance with the right to rule, govern officials, regulate the behavior of government agencies and their public officials, and use laws and regulations to control the exercise of public power. It can be said that the process of continuous improvement of the rule of law in urban management itself is an important practice of the concept of "the people of the people’s city and the people’s city for the people".

The standardization of management methods is also conducive to overcoming the disadvantages of sports and empirical governance, and improving the long -term and stability of urban governance. The content of the standardized management methods also includes the clear division of the rights and obligations of various types of public affairs and the supply of public services, and the determination of organizational management and operating rules provides behavioral specifications for various governance subjects, and provides public rights of the public. Standards and basis, guide urban management laws and regulations to become social consensus and behavioral rules.

For the government, the rule of law of management methods lies in clarifying its responsibilities and their behavioral standards, accelerating the transformation of government functions, and promoting the original inherent leadership decision -making government to the legal decision -making government through the construction of the rule of law. For citizens, as the main body of the city, citizens have the right to also obliges to improve the literacy and legal awareness of the rule of law, can establish reasonable expectations for administrative processes and management effects, and achieve effective supervision of public administration. It can be seen that the rule of law is the core symbol of urban competitiveness and the dazzling business card for urban governance.

The ideal state of rule of law is "the law can be prohibited, and the law is prohibited without authorization." To achieve this goal, the lack of legislation, law enforcement, and law general law is indispensable. Especially for Shanghai with the inheritance of sea -faction culture, its regional culture itself has a basis for contract civilization.

Shanghai is the first city in the country to implement garbage classification. From July 1, 2019 to the present, it has formed a situation of Shanghai demonstration and onlookers in the country. For Shanghai, legislation is both the task required by superiors, but also the endogenous demand generated by garbage classification to a certain stage. Up to now, the "Regulations on the Management of Shanghai Municipal Lomitic waste" have been implemented for more than two years, and the garbage classification has entered the daily life of each Shanghai person. It shows the civilization of the city.

Case: Fine Management -Taking the "Regulations on the Management of Shanghai Municipal Links" as an example

From 2005 to 2010, the average annual growth rate of Shanghai’s domestic waste was about 3%, the average annual growth rate from 2011-2017 was 4%, and the annual growth rate after 2014 reached 5%. And the traditional garbage treatment method, whether it is incineration or landfill, will bring obvious problems: occupying tens of thousands of acres of land, mosquito flies fly chaotic, sewage overflows, smells of the sky, seriously pollute the soil and groundwater environment … The number of garbage is still threatening the lives of various wild animals, and the garbage in rivers and oceans invades the habitat of aquatic creatures, causing them to die by mistake and even species extinction. At the same time, the two evils brought by the waste incineration are one of the most deadly toxic substances on the earth. After the incineration is discharged and discharged, it can diffuse from a long distance. Once the pollutants enter the human body, they will stay for a long time and eventually cause cancer. "Garbage siege" has been "under the city."

Promoting garbage classification can effectively improve the efficiency of garbage treatment, reduce treatment costs, reduce land consumption and environmental pollution, drive circular economy, save resources, and turn waste into treasures, and have the benefits of social, economic and ecological aspects. However, in order to do a good job of domestic waste, we must change people’s behavior habits and require a long -term process. Refined governance of domestic garbage in other countries often go through decades or even longer efforts. Therefore, the legislative work of the garbage classification is not only the need to mobilize the entire force, but also the most powerful education and guidance of this work and the most powerful education and control.

On the basis of a large -scale questionnaire survey and full review, Shanghai people have reviewed and approved the "Shanghai Municipal Home Wurns Management Regulations" greater than January 2019. It is announced that it will be officially implemented on July 1, 2019. Enter the "hard constraint" era.

The legislation clarified several priorities in Shanghai’s garbage classification work. One is how to divide it? Shanghai has been exploring garbage classification since the 1990s. After several changes, in 2011, it was determined to be recyclable, harmful garbage, wet garbage, and dry garbage. During the review of the regulations, the Standing Committee of the Municipal People’s Congress designed a set of questionnaires for the general public, and the results showed that most citizens expressed their recognition of the "four -point method".

Shanghai domestic waste classification and launch guide

Who will control it? At the three levels of the city, district, and streets, the regulations stipulate the management model of "combination and block", and clarify the work content of the street office and the township people’s governments. One by one. For example, units and individuals who generate domestic waste are the responsible subjects of classification and distribution. They should put domestic waste to the corresponding collecting containers; each launching point shall establish a classification and distribution management responsible person to clarify their rights and obligations; For garbage, the receiving unit can refuse to receive it. If it does not make corrections within the time limit, it can be fined.

The third is how to do the source reduction? The regulations include specific matters including promoting product packaging materials and reduction of express packaging. For example, hotels must not take the initiative to provide disposable daily necessities, catering service providers and catering distribution service providers must not proactively provide free disposable chopsticks, puffing and other tableware. In Shanghai, when using APP such as "Hungry" or "Meituan", each merchant must provide special tableware options and give reminders to "provide on -demand".

Fourth, how to achieve "closed loop" management? The regulations strictly standardize and transport and transport, and clarify that the receiving units must use special vehicles and ships to implement closed transportation. Realization of the whole process.

After the "Shanghai Municipal Domestic Waste Management Regulations" was officially implemented, a public account article entitled "A picture to understand Shanghai’s domestic garbage classification" was crazy "swipe the screen" in the circle of friends. Someone teased that the "magic people" was "mad" by the garbage classification. Every morning, when they went out, they had to accept the soul torture of "what garbage was".

Mobilization and ridicule, but if you go to the community and ask "whether the garbage classification is good", even the seventh or eighty -year -old grandma will answer you: "Okay! Now the environment is so serious, Allah is obliged to contribute to environmental protection." Since the implementation of more than two years, garbage classification has entered the daily life of every Shanghai people. Everyone is proud of "division", ashamed of "indiscriminate".

Observing all corners of Shanghai, you can find many places that are changing because of garbage classification: Located on the coast of the East China Sea and 70 kilometers from the southeast of the city center -this "digestion" of about 50%of the domestic garbage terminal treatment in Shanghai The landfills have become the ecological protection display window of green surroundings; Xinyixiu Village, which has achieved "wet garbage cannot be out of the community", Aunt Hou voted to the wet garbage in the community’s trash tank, and the intensive processing of intelligent equipment was treated with concentrated treatment 4 hours later, it became organic fertilizer, and was taken home by Aunt Hou to raise flowers. At the Century Lianhua Luban shop after the "Plastics Limit Order", the counter was carefully prepared on the counter. Packing for customers to use …

Shanghai Old Port Ecological Environmental Protection Base is the world’s largest waste incineration plant and medical waste disposal facility

Xinyu Liu Village "Wet garbage does not get out of the community"

The changes that occurred in factories, communities, supermarkets, and landfills are the true portrayal of the participation and control of the whole people. As of the end of 2020, Shanghai has initially established a full -process classification system to achieve 100%harmless treatment of domestic garbage. Both residential and unit domestic waste classification standards have doubled more than 95%, and the recycling rate of domestic waste resources has reached 38%. Garbage classification makes Shanghai more livable and more temperature.Please clickhereOr scan the code to buy to understand the exploration of refined city management in Shanghai: